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Curr Opin Neurol 2010; 23:388.Deng H, Liang H, Jankovic J. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:97-109. Ann Neurol 2005; 58:411.Kay DM, Moran D, Moses L, et al. This finding was not replicated in further studies which indeed suggested the opposite, a possible reduction in mortality.32 A more recent meta-analysis of 17 randomized trials involving a total of 3525 patients came to the conclusion that MAO-B inhibitors reduce disability, the need for levodopa and the incidence of motor fluctuations, without substantial side effects or increased mortality.33 Many of these studies have been of short duration and have not compared selegiline with initial treatment with a dopamine agonist. Beneficial effects of amantadine on L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. CrossRefMedlineWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar Cookson MR, Xiromerisiou G, Singleton A . Topic Outline INTRODUCTIONPATHOPHYSIOLOGYBasal ganglia circuitsCompensatory mechanismsPATHOLOGYLewy bodies and other intracellular inclusionsBraak stagingPATHOGENESIS OF CELL DEGENERATIONProtein misfolding, aggregation, and toxicityDefective proteolysisMitochondrial dysfunctionOxidative stressIron metabolismImmunologic and inflammatory mechanismsEPIDEMIOLOGYAssociated factors- Protective factors- Risk factorsGENETICSGlucocerebrosidase geneSNCA-associated PDLRRK2-associated PDParkin-associated PDPINK1-associated PDDJ-1-associated PDOther monogenic forms of PDGenetic testingINFORMATION FOR PATIENTSSUMMARYREFERENCES GRAPHICS FIGURESModel of basal ganglia dysfunctionStages neurodegeneration PDPathogenic mechanisms PDProcessing proteins PDTABLESClassification parkinsonismGenetic causes parkinsonism Smarter Decisions,Better Care UpToDate synthesizes the most recent medical information into evidence-based practical recommendations clinicians trust to make the right point-of-care decisions. PINK1 mutations are associated with sporadic early-onset parkinsonism. Evaluation of LRRK2 G2019S penetrance: relevance for genetic counseling in Parkinson disease. Areas timely for developing research Although there is no cure, there are several management options for the early treatment of PD. Some of these mutations involve genes that play a role in dopamine cell functions. This topic last updated: Jul 14, 2016.


(2002) Proc. Peak-dose dyskinesias are related to high-plasma concentrations of levodopa and can be managed by fractionating levodopa doses. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1484-1491. Neurology 1998;51:1309-1314. Neurology 1996; 47:155.Tanner CM, Ottman R, Goldman SM, et al. Cases of MPTP-induced Parkinson�s in the general population are exceedingly rare. Parkinson's disease is associated with hippocampal atrophy. Neurosci.22,2780-2791.pmid:11923443 Abstract/FREE Full Text Xu J. Erratum in: Neurology, (2005) 65, 1992. d680c458d3

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